Birth Control means prevention of pregnancy for men and women by using a way or method. It may be involved with one or more actions, using some devices, sexual practices or some medications. There are three major routes of Birth Control like contraception, contragestion and chemical or surgical induction of termination of the pregnancy.
Contraception: It is regarded as prevention of fertilization by the sperm cells.
Contragestion: It is regarded as prevention of implantation of the fertilized eggs. It is also known as emergency contraception.
Medical Termination of Pregnancy : In this methord an unwanted pregnency up to 9 weeks is treminated with the help of medicine like, Mifepristone and Misoprostole
Surgical Induction: Abortion of the developing fetus or embryo.
There are two methods of birth control-modern method and traditional method, which are discussed below:
Male Condom: It is a mechanical barrier which prevents pregnancy by stopping the movement of sperm into the vagina. It is also very effective for the protection against sexually transmitted disease.
Female Condom: It is a polyurethane condom which has a flexible ring on both the side of the condom.
Spermicide: This is a type of cream which is used inside the vagina before intercourse. It acts as a chemical barrier and destroys the male sperms.
Contraceptive Sponge: it is female contraceptive and acts a chemical barrier which stops the movement of sperm to the egg.
Diaphragm: It is a rubber -dome shaped female contraceptive device, which is very effective if it is used in combination with spermicides.
Cervical Cap: Cervical cap is a thimble-shaped latex rubber barrier, used by women and it prevents the entry of sperm through the external opening of the uterus.
The Pill: It is the combination of two hormones, estrogen and progesterone. They work by stopping the production of egg. When it is used correctly, it gives 99% positive result in birth control.
Contraceptive Patch: This patch is applied on the skin. It causes the release of estrogen and progesterone hormones. This option gives very effective results if it is used in combination with spermicides. The patch is worn on the lower abdomen or on the buttocks for three consecutive weeks.
Contraceptive Vaginal Ring: This female contraceptive ring is made of a flexible plastic. It is worn inside the vagina for 3week and then it is removed for 1 week during the menstrual period.
Contraceptive Injection (The shot): Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate is a progestin, which is long-term reversible contraceptive medicine. It is used as an injection after every 3 months.
Implants: Implanon is a progestin cored rod, which is inserted under the skin of the upper arm in women. It works by stimulating on moving the progesterone slowly. It works for 3 years.
Celibacy or Sexual Abstinence: it is regarded for preventing pregnancy by avoiding penis-in-vagina intercourse.
Coitus Interrupts (withdrawal): when the man reaches an orgasm, he pulls his penis out of the vagina and ejaculates outside of the vagina. This way no sperm enters into the vagina. According to the research, this method is 90% beneficial if it is used correctly.
Emergency contraceptives are the contraceptive measures that are taken to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected intercourse. Some of these are:
Emergency Contraceptive Pill: This type of pills work by preventing the ovulation. These pills are different from the abortion methods which work after implantation of the egg in the womb. These pills are for occasional use when primary measures cannot be used.
Intrauterine Device or IUD: This small T-shaped device is placed inside the uterine by a gynecologist. These contraceptive measures are very popular in China. It is placed till pregnancy is not desired. Depending on the quality, it can last from 4-8 years.
Tubal ligation: It is a contraceptive measure where the women's fallopian tube is sealed by ligation which prevents pregnancy.
Vasectomy: The vasectomy is a surgical procedure which is done to remove a men's right and left vas deferens (through which men's sperm ejaculates and enters into the vagina). Thus, it prevents pregnancy.